عنوان مقاله [English]
Loving all creatures or belief in the inflow of love in all creation and stations of existence can be seen in both the ideas of Ibn Sina and Suhravardi. Shaykh al-Rais offers two definitions of love that in one only the perfection, is taken into account. According to the first definition no creature is outside the scope of loving – kindness, although most creatures are not aware of their love. This love consists of two kinds natural and volitional love. Loving – kindness in the second difinition in allocated to the sentient beings. This love because of having different levels of perecption and its inclusion of sensual, imaginative, illusionary and rational perception has different levels. Ibn Sina has called the noblest level of volitional love which is based on rational perception the voluntary or intellectual love and considers the lowest level of love as animal love. Shaykh regards the love without the intervention rational faculty as sin and desease. Shaykh Ishraq is faithful to Ibn Sina’s definitions and believes in two all-embrazing natural and voluntary love and with a symbolic language has depicted the rational love . He has spoken of love as darkness and regards such a love as equal to wretchedness.